In this video collection, authors of findings published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation present personally guided tours of their results. The JCI accepts video submissions from authors of recently accepted manuscripts. Instructions can be found on the Author's Take Guidelines page.
Melanoma-directed immunotherapies have improved quality of life and outcome for many patients with this malignancy. Unfortunately, treatment resistance develops in some individuals and other patients do not respond to therapy; therefore, there remains a need for additional intervention targets for this devastating disease. In this episode, Craig Ceol and Arvind Venkatesan discuss their recent study, which identifies GDF6-mediated BMP signaling as a driver of melanoma. Importantly, upregulation of this GDF6 in patients with melanoma associated with increased metastasis and decreased survival, supporting further development of strategies to target GDF6/BMP signaling.
Pathogenic remodeling following heart injury is due, in part, to the limited regenerative capacity of adult cardiomyocytes. Cell cycle induction has been recently explored as a therapeutic approach for heart failure, and to this end, expression of cyclin D2 in cardiomyocytes improves outcomes in mouse models follwoing myocardial infarction. In this episode, Gerd Hasenfuß, Loren Field, and Karl Toischer discuss their collaborative effort to further evaluate the effect of increased cyclin D2 on outcomes in response to other forms of heart failure. Cyclin D2 expression improved survival and cardiac function in mice exposed to pressure overload; however, cyclin D2-espressing mice were not protected from adverse effects in response to chronic volume overload. These results support further effort into the development of strategies to improve cardiomyocyte proliferation for some types cardiac injury.
Necrotizing enterocolitis is a leading cause of death in preterm infants and is characterized by severe inflammation. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis is reduced in preterm infants fed human breast milk; however, the factors underlying the beneficial effects of human breast milk are not fully understood. In this episode, Mansour Mohamadzadeh and colleagues compared the microbiome of preterm infants fed either breast milk or formula and identified a propionobacterial strain (P. FU1) that was present in the gut microbiota of breastmilk fed- but not formula fed-infants. Moreover, introduction of this bacterial strain into murine models was protective against necrotizing enterocolitis-like inflammation and injury as well pathogenic intestinal pathogens. The results of this study provide important insight into the beneficial effects of human breast milk on intestinal flora.
Schlemm’s canal is a lymphatic-like vessel in the eye that is critical for proper drainage of aqueous humor. Glaucoma results from increased intraocular pressure due to decreased aqueous humor outflow from the eye; therefore, strategies to enhance Schlemm’s canal function have potential to relieve glaucoma symptoms. In this episode, Gou Young Koh, Jaeryung Kim, and Dae-Young Park investigate factors that underlie the maintenance and integrity of Schlemm’s’ canal. Their work reveals that that angiopoietin/Tie2 signaling is essential for Schlemm’s canal function and integrity. Importantly, increasing Tie2 activity with an agonist antibody restored Schlemm’s canal function and reduced glaucoma phenotypes in mouse models, suggesting Tie2 activation be further explored as a therapeutic strategy for reducing intraocular pressure.
Anti-PD-1 therapy with inhibitors such as pembrolizumab has proven beneficial for multiple types of cancers. Not all patients respond to PD-1 blockade; therefore, strategies to better predict individual response to anti-PD-1 would be of great clinical benefit. In this episode, Terri McClanahan and Jared Lunceford discuss their work, which has led to the identification of a gene expression profile that correlates with clinical response to pembrolizimab. Importantly, the presence of this T cell-inflamed gene expression profile in patients prior to treatment was shown to be indicative of response in multiple cohorts and cancer types.